齐泽克:冠状病毒对资本主义的打击是“杀人比尔”式的
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[楼主] 之乎者也 2020-03-03 10:37:41

来源:绘画艺术坏蛋店II  Sl**oj Zizek


斯拉沃热·齐泽克(斯洛文尼亚语原名:Sl**oj Žižek,公元1949年3月21日—),斯洛文尼亚作家、学者,出生于斯洛文尼亚卢布尔雅那。


文章原标题:

Sl**oj Zizek: Coron**irus is ‘Kill Bill’-esque blow to capitalism and could lead to reinvention of communism


机器 译
来源:https://www.rt.com/op-ed/481831-coron**irus-kill-bill-capitalism-communism/

杀死比尔 2 Dir:Quentin Tarantino(2004)©Miramax

The ongoing spread of the coron**irus epidemic has also triggered vast epidemics of ideological viruses which were laying dormant in our societies: fake news, paranoiac conspiracy theories, explosions of racism.

冠状病毒流行病的持续蔓延还引发了意识形态病毒的广泛流行,这些病毒在我们的社会中处于休眠状态:假新闻,偏执狂阴谋论,种族主义激增。


The well-grounded medical need for quarantines found an echo in the ideological pressure to establish clear borders and to quarantine enemies that pose a threat to our identity.

对“隔离”的医疗方面的刚需在另一领域发现了自己的回音,即,在意识形态的压力下也有着同样的“隔离”:隔离那些威胁到我们身份认同的敌人,并与之划出一道清晰边界。


But maybe another – and much more beneficial – ideological virus will spread and hopefully infect us: the virus of thinking about an alternate society, a society beyond nation-state, a society that actualizes itself in the forms of global solidarity and cooperation.

但也许另一种——更加有益的——意识形态病毒席卷并可能感染我们:它促使我们去思索别一种社会:一个超越民族国家的社会,一个以全球团结与合作的形式自我实现的社会。


Speculation is often heard today that the coron**irus may lead to the fall of communist rule in China, in the same way that (as Gorbachev himself admitted) the Chernobyl catastrophe was the event which triggered the end of the Soviet communism. But there is a paradox here: the coron**irus will also compel us to re-invent communism based on trust in the people and in science.

现今经常听到这样的推论:冠状病毒可能导致统治(communistrule)瓦解,就如同(戈尔巴乔夫本人承认的那样)切尔诺贝利灾难导致苏共的落幕。但这儿出现一个悖论:冠状病毒也将迫使我们重新发现共产主义——它建基于信任人民与相信科学之上。


In the final scene of Quentin Tarantino’s ‘Kill Bill 2,’ Beatrix disables the evil Bill and strikes him with the“Five Point Palm Exploding Heart Technique”– the most deadly blow in all of martial arts. The move consists of a combination of five strikes with one’s fingertips to five different pressure points on the target’s body. After the target walks away and has taken five steps, their heart explodes in their body and they fall to the ground.

在昆汀·塔伦蒂诺的《杀死比尔2》的最后一幕,贝娅特丽克丝(Beatrix)五雷轰心掌”(FivePoint Palm Heart Technique)制服了邪恶比尔——它是所有武术招数中最致命的。用指尖对对手身体的五个部位分别击打,当对手走了五步后,其心脏爆炸,尔后摔倒在地。


This attack is part of martial arts mythology and is not possible in real hand-to-hand combat. But, back to the film, after Beatrix does it, Bill calmly makes his peace with her, takes five steps and dies…

这种攻击是武术神话的一部分,在真正的肉搏战中是不可能的。但在电影中,贝娅特丽克丝(Beatrix)施此招后,比尔平静地与她和解,走了五步后,死了……

What makes this attack so fascinating is the time between being hit and the moment of death: I can h**e a nice conversation as long as I sit calmly, but I am all this time aware that the moment I start to walk, my heart will explode and I will drop dead.

    这次袭击之所以如此迷人,是因为它被击中到死亡之间的时间:从被击中的那一刻到终于暴毙所间隔的时间。比如,只要我安静坐着,就仍可与你愉快交谈,但是我开始走路的那一刻,我的心脏会爆炸, 我会死的。


Is the idea of those who speculate about how the coron**irus epidemic could lead to the fall of communist rule in China not similar? Like some kind of social “Five Point Palm Exploding Heart Technique” on the country’s communist regime, the authorities can sit, observe and go through the motions of quarantine, but any real change in the social order (like trusting the people) will result in their downfall.

这与冠状病毒的流行会导致统治分崩离析的想法是否相似?就像某种社会性的“五雷轰心掌”被施加在该国的政权之上,当局仍可以坐着、监视并继续执行隔离政策,但社会秩序的任何真正变化(如信任人民)都会导致其垮台。


My modest opinion is much more radical: the coron**irus epidemic is a kind of“Five Point Palm Exploding Heart Technique”attack on the global capitalist system – a signal that we cannot go on the way we were up until now, that a radical change is needed.

鄙人观点要激进得多:冠状病毒的流行实则是对全球资本主义体系的一击五雷轰心掌”——这意味着我们不能再像以前那样一意孤行,是时候进行根本性的变革了。


Sad fact, we need a catastrophe

可悲的事实,我们需要一场灾难
Years ago, Fredric Jameson drew attention to the utopian potential in movies about a cosmic catastrophe (an asteroid threatening life on Earth, or ***irus killing humanity). Such a global threat gives birth to global solidarity, our petty differences become insignificant, we all work together to find a solution – and here we are today, in real life. The point is not to sadistically enjoy widespread suffering insofar as it helps our cause – on the contrary, the point is to reflect upon a sad fact that we need a catastrophe to make us able to rethink the very basic features of the society in which we live.

多年前,詹明信( Fredric Jameson)用一些以宇宙大灾难(如威胁地球生灵的小行星,或致死的病毒)为主题的电影,引起了人们对乌托邦之可能性的关注。此类全球大灾难催生了全球团结,我们之间的微小分歧开始变得微不足道,人们均致力于寻找解决办法——这正是当下的光景。重点不是施虐般地享受广泛蔓延的痛苦——相反,重点在于要反思一个可悲的事实,即我们需要一场灾难,才能重新思考我们这个社会的基本特性。


The first vague model of such a global coordination is the World Health Organization, from which we are not getting the usual bureaucratic gibberish but precise warnings proclaimed without panic. Such organizations should be given more executive power.

这种全球协作的第一个模糊模式(vague model)就是世界卫生组织,人们从它那里得到的不再是往常官僚胡言乱语,而是不带慌张的准确警告。这类组织理应获得更大的行政权力。


Bernie Sanders is mocked by skeptics for his advocacy of universal healthcare in the US – is the lesson of the coron**irus epidemic not that even more is needed, that we should start to put together some kind of GLOBAL healthcare network?

怀疑论者伯尼·桑德斯(Bernie Sanders)因在美国倡导全民医疗而受到怀疑论者的嘲笑——难道来自冠状病毒的教训还不够让我们去着手整合起某种全球医疗网络吗?


A day after Iran’s Deputy Health Minister Iraj Harirchi appeared at a press conference in order to downplay the coron**irus spread and to assert that mass quarantines are not necessary, he made a short statement admitting that he has contracted the coron**irus and placed himself in isolation (already during his first TV appearance, he had shown signs of fever and weakness). Harirchi added:“This virus is democratic, and it doesn’t distinguish between poor and rich or between statesman and an ordinary citizen.”

在伊朗卫生部副部长哈里奇(Iraj Harirchi)出席记者招待会时,曾淡化冠状病毒的蔓延程度,声称并不需要大规模的隔离,结果第二天,他发表了简短声明,承认自己感染了冠状病毒,并进行自我隔离(在第一次出现在电视上时,他就已经有了发烧和虚弱症状)。哈里奇补充道:“这种病毒是民主的,它不区分穷人和富人、政客和平民。

In this, he was right – we are all in the same boat. It is difficult to miss the supreme irony of the fact that what brought us all together and pushed us into global solidarity expresses itself at the level of everyday life in strict commands to **oid close contacts with others, even to self-isolate.

在这方面,他是对的-我们都在同一条船上。令人难以置信的具有讽刺意味的事实是,把我们团结在一起并推动我们走向全球团结的这一事实在日常生活中以严格的命令表达自己,以避免与他人的亲密接触,甚至自我孤立。


And we are not dealing only with viral threats – other catastrophes are looming on the horizon or already taking place: droughts, heatw**es, massive storms, etc. In all these cases, the answer is not panic but hard and urgent work to establish some kind of efficient global coordination.

而且,我们不仅在应对病毒威胁——即将来临或即将发生的其他灾难,或已然爆发:干旱、酷热期、大风暴等等。面对所有这些情况,,答案不是慌张,而是建立某种紧急和紧急工作 有效的全球协调。


Will we only be safe in virtual reality?

只有在虚拟现实中才会感到安全吗?


       The first illusion to dispel is the one formulated by US President Donald Trump during his recent visit to India, where he said that the epidemic would recede quickly and we just h**e to wait for the spike and then life will return to normal.

第一个需要驱散的幻想来自美国总统特朗普最近访问印度时的相关言论——疫情会很快消退,我们只需静待疫病的激增(spike),然后生活自然会回归正常。


Against these all too easy hopes, the first thing to accept is that the threat is here to stay. Even if this w**e recedes, it will reappear in new, maybe even more dangerous, forms.

面对这些过于简单的希望,首先要接受的是,威胁将持续存在。即使这股浪潮退去,它也会以新的、甚或更险恶的形式重新出现。


For this reason, we can expect that viral epidemics will affect our most elementary interactions with other people and objects around us, including our own bodies – **oid touching things that may be (invisibly) dirty, don’t touch hooks, don’t sit on toilet seats or public benches, **oid embracing people or shaking their hands. We might even become more careful about spontaneous gestures: don’t touch your nose or rub your eyes.

因此,可以预期,病毒的传播将影响我们与周遭人事(包括自我身体)最基本的互动——避免碰触到那些(隐形的)脏东西,不要触摸钩子,不要坐在马桶或公共长凳上,避免拥抱他人或握手。我们甚至可能对自己自发的手势都更加谨慎:不要抠鼻子,不能揉眼睛。


So it’s not only the state and other agencies that will control us, we should also learn to control and discipline ourselves. Maybe only virtual reality will be considered safe, and moving freely in an open space will be restricted to the islands owned by the ultra-rich.

不止国家和其他机构会控制我们,我们也学会了自我控制和规训。也许只有虚拟现实才是安全的,就连超级富豪自由活动的开放空间也被限制在他所拥有的岛屿之内。


But even here, at the level of virtual reality and internet, we should remind ourselves that, in the last decades, the terms “virus” and “viral” were mostly used to designate digital viruses which were infecting our web-space and of which we were not aware, at least not until their destructive power (say, of destroying our data or our hard-drive) was unleashed. What we see now is a massive return to the original literal meaning of the term: viral infections work hand-in-hand in both dimensions, real and virtual.

但是即使在这里,在虚拟现实和互联网的层面上,我们也该提醒自己,在过去数十年里,“virus” 和 “viral”(病毒)这两个词语,主要指那些感染网络空间的数字病毒,而且,至少在它们的毁灭性打击(如损毁数据或硬盘)爆发以前,我们甚至都没意识到其存在。现今之所见,是其原始语义的大规模回潮:病毒感染在现实和虚拟的双重维度齐头并进。

      Return of capitalist animism

资本主义泛灵论(animism)的回归


     Another weird phenomenon that we can observe is the triumphant return of capitalist animism, of treating social phenomena like markets or financial capital as living entities. If one reads our big media, the impression one gets is that what we should really worry about are not thousands who already died (and thousands more who will die) but the fact that “markets are getting nervous.” The coron**irus is increasingly disturbing the smooth running of the world market and, as we hear, growth may fall by two or three percent.

我们可以观察到的另一种怪异现象是,资本主义万物有灵论的胜利归来,将诸如市场或金融资本之类的社会现象视为有生命的实体。如果阅读大型媒体的报道,读者会得到如下印象:真正该担心的不是成千上万的亡灵(和成千上万的将死之人),而是“市场正变得紧张”这一事实。冠状病毒正在越来越多地干扰世界市场的平稳运行,并且据我们所知,增长可能下降百分之二到百分之三。


Does all this not clearly signal the urgent need for a reorganization of the global economy which will no longer be at the mercy of market mechanisms? We are not talking here about old-style communism, of course, just about some kind of global organization that can control and regulate the economy, as well as limit the sovereignty of nation-states when needed. Countries were able to do it against the backdrop of war in the past, and all of us are now effectively approaching a state of medical war.

这一切是否都没有清楚地表明迫切需要全球经济的重组,而这种重组将不再受市场机制的支配了?当然,此处谈论的不是旧式的共产主义,只是指某种能够控制和调节经济的全球性组织,以及在必要时,该组织可以限制民族国家的主权。过去,各国在战争的背景下能够做到这一点,我们大家现在都在有效地走向医疗战争状态。


Plus we should also not be afraid to note some potentially beneficial side effects of the epidemic. One of the symbols of the epidemic is passengers caught (quarantined) on large cruise ships – good riddance to the obscenity of such ships, I am tempted to say. (We only h**e to be careful that tr**el to lone islands or other exclusive resorts will not become again the privilege of the rich few, as it was decades ago with flying.) Car production is also seriously affected by the coron**irus – which is not too bad, as this may compel us to think about alternatives to our obsession with individual vehicles. The list goes on.

另外,我们也不惮于注意到该流行病的某些潜在有益的副作用。该流行病的一个症状/象征(symbol)是被大型游轮困住(隔离)的乘客——我很想说,(游客)远离这种污秽之船真是越早越好。(我们只需要小心,前往孤岛或其他高级度假胜地的旅行将不再像几十年前的飞行一样再次成为少数富人的特权。)汽车生产也受到冠状病毒的重创——这还不算太坏,因为这可能会迫使我们考虑个人交通工具的替代方案。类似例子很多。


In a recent speech, Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban said: “There is no such thing as a liberal. A liberal is nothing more than a communist with a diploma.”

匈牙利总理维克多·奥尔本(ViktorOrban)在最近的讲话中说“没有自由主义者这样的人。 自由主义者不过是拥有文凭的共产主义者。


What if the opposite is true? If we designate as “liberals” all those who care for our freedoms, and as “communists” those who are aware that we can s**e these freedoms only with radical changes since global capitalism is approaching a crisis? Then we should say that, today, those who still recognize themselves as communists are liberals with a diploma – liberals who seriously studied why our liberal values are under threat and became aware that only radical change can s**e them.

如果情况正好相反呢?如果我们将所有关心我们的自由的人指定为“自由主义者”,而将那些意识到自从全球资本主义逼近危机以来我们只有通过重大变革才能挽救这些自由的人称为“共产主义者”?那我们更应该说,今天,那些仍然自认为是共产主义者的人,是有文凭的自由主义者,他们认真研究为何自由价值观会受到威胁,并意识到只有通过“彻底变革”才能拯救它们。

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